Blog: Baghdad Burning

A blog is a journal published on the internet and updated frequently, sometimes daily. It is open for anyone to read and represents the views of the author. This is very much the case in the following blog from Baghdad. It is written by a girl living in the middle of war. The text below was posted a few years ago, when the conflict was especially intense. Like most blogs it is written in international English to reach the widest possible audience


Baghdad Burning

Saturday, August 05, 2006

Residents of Baghdad are systematically being pushed out of the city. Some families are waking up to find a Kalashnikov bullet and a letter in an envelope with the words “Leave your area or else.” The culprits behind these attacks and threats are Sadr’s followers – Mahdi Army. It’s general knowledge, although no one dares say it out loud. In the last month we’ve had two different families staying with us in our house, after having to leave their neighborhoods due to death threats and attacks. It’s not just Sunnis – it’s Shia, Arabs, Kurds – most of the middle-class areas are being targeted by militias.

Other areas are being overrun by armed Islamists. The Americans have absolutely no control in these areas. Or maybe they simply don’t want to control the areas because when there’s a clash between Sadr’s militia and another militia in a residential neighborhood, they surround the area and watch things happen.



Since the beginning of July, the men in our area have been patrolling the streets. Some of them patrol the rooftops and others sit quietly by the homemade road blocks we have on the major roads leading into the area. You cannot in any way rely on Americans or the government. You can only hope your family and friends will remain alive – not safe, not secure – just alive. That’s good enough.

For me, June marked the first month I don’t dare leave the house without a hijab, or headscarf. I don’t wear a hijab usually, but it’s no longer possible to drive around Baghdad without one. It’s just not a good idea. (Take note that when I say “drive” I actually mean “sit in the back seat of the car” – I haven’t driven for the longest time.) Going around bare-headed in a car or in the street also puts the family members with you in danger. You risk hearing something you don’t want to hear and then the father or the brother or cousin or uncle can’t just sit by and let it happen. I haven’t driven for the longest time. If you’re a female, you risk being attacked.

I look at my older clothes – the jeans and t-shirts and colorful skirts – and it’s like I’m studying a wardrobe from another country, another lifetime. There was a time, a couple of years ago, when you could more or less wear what you wanted if you weren’t going to a public place. If you were going to a friend’s or relative’s house, you could wear trousers and a shirt, or jeans, something you wouldn’t ordinarily wear. We don’t do that anymore because there’s always that risk of getting stopped in the car and checked by one militia or another.

There are no laws that say we have to wear a hijab (yet), but there are the men in head-to-toe black and the turbans, the extremists and fanatics who were liberated by the occupation, and at some point, you tire of the defiance. You no longer want to be seen. I feel like the black or white scarf I fling haphazardly on my head as I walk out the door makes me invisible to a certain degree – it’s easier to blend in with the masses shrouded in black. If you’re a female, you don’t want the attention – you don’t want it from Iraqi police, you don’t want it from the black-clad militia man, you don’t want it from the American soldier. You don’t want to be noticed or seen.

I have nothing against the hijab, of course, as long as it is being worn by choice. Many of my relatives and friends wear a headscarf. Most of them began wearing it after the war. It started out as a way to avoid trouble and undue attention, and now they just keep it on because it makes no sense to take it off. What is happening to the country?

I realized how common it had become only in mid-July when M., a childhood friend, came to say goodbye before leaving the country. She walked into the house, complaining of the heat and the roads, her brother following closely behind. It took me to the end of the visit for the peculiarity of the situation to hit me. She was getting ready to leave before the sun set, and she picked up the beige headscarf folded neatly by her side. As she told me about one of her neighbors being shot, she opened up the scarf with a flourish, set it on her head like a pro, and pinned it snugly under her chin with the precision of a seasoned hijab-wearer. All this without a mirror – like she had done it a hundred times over… Which would be fine, except that M. is Christian.

If M. can wear one quietly – so can I.





Rewrite the follow statements to make them correct, if necessary. Compare your answers with a classmate.

a) Residents of Baghdad are safe at home.

b) The Americans stop conflicts between the militias.

c) The Mahdi Army have been patrolling the streets of her area.

d) The writer hopes her family and friends will remain safe and secure.

e) She cannot wear the clothes she wants anymore.

f) She drives around Baghdad without a hijab.

g) She wears a hijab because it is the law.

h) Her friend does not have to wear a hijab because she is a Christian.



a) This is a very direct record of what it is like to live in a war zone. Pick out some details of the account that make this clear. Did you find anything shocking or surprising in it? Compare you answers with a classmate’s.

b) The author clearly feels particularly at risk because she is female. Is this always the case in war or is there some special reason in her situation? What does she do to try to protect herself?

c) She writes a lot about the use of the hijab. What do you think it has become a symbol of in Baghdad? Why do you think she is reluctant to wear it? Why is it ironic that her friend, M, wears one?

d) It is clear that there are forces in Baghdad that wish to decide how people are to dress and to act in public, particularly women. But is that any different from our own culture? Don’t we have rules of public dress and conduct? How can we avoid being ethnocentric when we read about such things?

e) Why do you think this girl is writing a blog? Why bother? And why write it in a foreign language? Put yourself in her place. What would a blog give you?



Find out what the situation is like in Iraq today. What has changed since this blog text was posted in 2006?